Clinical psychology is an applied discipline, its vitality lies in the practice. Any scientific practice, however, were carried out under the guidance of a certain theory. Leaving no doubt that theory to guide practice is blind. Therefore, we view the past, clinical psychology, a review of the theory is absolutely necessary.
1, human psychology point of view
1, human nature is human unity of the three basic properties
Since ancient times philosophers, psychologists on the properties of human nature expressed many views, and some are very antagonistic. However, despite a variety of viewpoints lead to any conclusion, people have a biological, psychological and social three kinds of attributes are true facts. We know that human beings are complex contains a variety of contradictory things. This complex contains three sets of contradictory things: the first group of contradictions is a human as a biological individual and the unity of opposites between the living conditions of the outside world; second group of contradictions is the human being as the organization of social relations in certain individuals and social groups in conflict; The third group of contradictions is the human subjective world and objective world of contradictions. The first group of people and embodies the contradictions biological properties, is a fundamental individual survival; second group embodies the contradiction between people's social attributes, which guarantees the survival of the individual and ethnic evolution of development; third group embodies the contradiction between man's spiritual attribute, which determines the person has knowledge of the external world and transforming the outside world and awareness of the psychological characteristics. Human psychology of human behavior and psychological problems of the analysis is built on people's understanding of these three essential attribute above interventions are also associated with it. From this perspective, human psychology that people's mental structure comprises three elements: biological factors, social factors and experiences of the system.
2, psychoanalytic theory point of view
Freud believed that people's spiritual power is the "libido" (Libido), this concept is the cornerstone of psychoanalytic theory. The concept of libido, including both physical and psychological meaning, both said the physical sexual impulses, he said that the relationship between psychological sexual desire. Freud's concept emphasizes the psychological meaning of the concept of libido to further generalization involving physiological sexual arousal in many other mental activities, such as self-love, maternal love, religious feelings, and human social and cultural activities, he will say that this was libidinal satisfaction. In his later, Freud further abstraction to all life's self-preservation, racial breeding and the corresponding mental life are summed up to the concept of libido to put forward the "life instinct" or "Health instinct" was the concept that latent in the organism in the creative instinct. With this opposite is the "death instinct." This unconscious life, death, the coexistence of instinctive opposition is the driving force behind people's behavior.
Clearly, Freud's theory is explored in the context of human biology, and its positive meaning is to liberate people from out of the hands of God, but also inevitably biased. His supporters split Jung and Freud in 1911 made human behavior motivated by children's own weakness and weak awareness of this conflict between them; people driving force is not a sexual instinct, but rather of their own dissatisfaction with the status quo. Adler believed that libido is a life-impulse, but not all sexual impulses. Sexual instincts of the people, not the most important requirement is stronger than hunger. The new doctrine of the Freud school of Freud's libido has taken a thorough negative attitude toward the other extreme. Its representatives Horney believed that the occurrence and development of psychological motivation is social environment. She also felt that mental illness is completely unreasonable due to social factors. These views and related Freudian school of scholars in different times in which a definite link.
3, Gestalt school point of view
Gestalt school, also known as Gestalt psychology, whose research focuses on the perception of the integrity and integrity, epitomized by Lewin. 30 years, their research turned to the human personality and behavior problems. Lewin believed that the occurrence of acts of self and the environment and human relationships are. Individual behavior is a function of state and the prevailing circumstances. Person's physical condition can be caused by motivational state, called the need. Also accompanied by emotional characteristics and needs, as demonstrated by the tense. There will always be by conduct from this state of tension and imbalances in the way out of a sense of reach and tension needed to meet the elimination of such behavior is generated. As the psychological field there are different directions and different size conditions, people often have spiritual conflict. When a different direction and strength of similar conditions, must make a choice, which would conflict. There are three basic conflicts: Trend - tend to conflict, to escape - to avoid conflict, the most serious conflict is the convergence of divisive - to avoid conflicts.
Second, behavioral perspective on the dynamic behavior of
Behaviorist view of human behavior reason for this is to stimulate the outside world. For them, it is impossible to use "spiritual power" is used. Their behavior formula is SR, recognize only the external visible activity and behavior. However, the fact they had to answer "why", in the worst-case scenario, they proposed the "driving force" of the concept. But they understand this is physiological, not psychological. They believe that driving force is just a physiological and biochemical changes, this change caused by the stimulus and with the points towards the goal behavior. Harlow, 50 years on the masterpiece of the induction drive, divided into two categories: one category is driving force; hunger, thirst, sex, maternal behavior; a driving force is a derived class, such as the gregarious, security and other acts of driving force is an acquired learned.
Third, humanistic view on the psychological dynamics
Humanism is a philosophical ideas originated in Europe. Because of this philosophical ideal man as a living, independent existence of the organism, it seeks to tap the so-called "human nature" and advocated "human nature" to look for motivation of human behavior.
Humanistic psychology was represented by Maslow. He proposed a "hierarchy of motives," "potential," "self-realization," "peak experience", etc. point of view. In his hierarchy of motives, he suggested that human behavior is subject to some kind of "need" driven. If a hungry person, all his psychological and behavioral motivation is to satisfy the appetite. Meanwhile, Maslow suggested that when the low-level need to be met before we can produce a higher-level needs. Self-realization is a kind of inner needs, so do all their own. His "hierarchy of motives," have taken note of the high-level, social and spiritual needs, which is of positive significance. On this level, but to be understood and rigid sets of machinery for the reality, often at variance with reality and should be addressed. With regard to power issues, Maslow as "potential" to answer the notion that the potential for a person to achieve "self-realization," a fundamental driving force of this goal.