Ever since the founding of the People's Republic of China, tuina medicine has entered an overall new developing period. The main achievements of tuina study and advance in this period were embodied in the following five aspects.
Firstly, ancient books on tuina were excavated and sorted out, and a lot of new works on tuina were published. Besides the ancient books sorted out and published again, which were mostly specialized treatises on infantile tuina, in this period there were restricted publications Erzhi Dingchan (Fixed Two-finger Meditation), Yizhi Yangchun ( One-finger Spring Season ), etc., which made contributions to the excavation of ancient medical tuina books. New works on tuina included the following kinds: ① Popular literatures which are of combination of basic theories with clinical knowledge. ② Books in the form of clinical specialities. ③ Books which are of characteristic of schools or unique experience. ④Specific treatises on manipulations or exercises. ⑤ Great complete works. Among them were Zhongguo Anmo Daquan (the Complete works of Chinese Anmo), Zhongguo Tuina (Chinese Tuina), Zhonghua Tuina Dacheng (the Great Collection of Chinese Tuina), and Tuina Dacheng ( the Great Collection of Tuina ) , etc. A general survey showed that all the works had the common features of the enhancement of science and logic of tuina, the breakthrough in tuina principle, the increase of proofs of modern researches and the combination of treatment of diseases with diagnostic and anatomic knowledge of Western medicine.
Secondly, the practice and summarization of clinical experience of tuina became more scientific day by day. The progress of science and culture and the development of health and medicine made tuina practice more scientific. The accumulated rich experience in practice and the education of modern medical knowledge raised the quality of massagists greatly. For example, diagnosis of tuina was no longer confined to the traditional four diagnostic methods. Many massagists have commanded modern medical techniques such as X-ray examination, ultrasonic scanning, electromyographic examination, CT examination and nuclear magnetic resonance. In treatment sectarian bias were gradually thrown away. Massagists have mastered a set of theories of treatment based on syndrome differentiation. They are able to select and employ the best ones from the principles, methods, prescriptions and techniques. Thousands of theses on tuina have been published in many sorts of periodicals of China, which summed up tuina therapy from all respects scientifically and offered an important guide to tuina clinic.
Thirdly, the teaching system of tuina has been improving day by day. Since Shanghai Health School started a tuina training class in October, 1956, tuina teaching has gone out of the old master-apprentice mode and has been on the way of formal education. Since the late 1970s, and early 1980s, all the TCM colleges in China have organized tuina speciality one after another and consummated the educational system of tuina subject including professional training, undergraduate, postgraduate, doctorate and international education, which have trained quite a lot of advanced specialists on tuina. Tuina teaching activities have been carried out at all TCM colleges of China and the foreign exchanges has greatly increased. Textbooks of tuina have also possessed different styles and different levels. With the development of tuina subject, tuina teaching has divided into different courses: basic tuina, tuina therapy, tuina manipulation, tuina exercise training, and infantile tuina, etc.[page_break]