1,What is the sinuses
Sinus is also known as paranasal sinuses, paranasal sinuses, which is the human skull around the nose of memory is more than one gas-bearing bone cavity. They are hidden in the nose next to the body a total of four groups of eight sinuses, respectively maxlliary sinus, ethmoid sinus, sphenoid sinus, and frontal sinus, maxillary sinus is located on both sides of the nasal cavity, orbit within the above maxillary; in the frontal sinus in the frontal bone; ethmoid located on both sides of the upper nasal cavity from the sieve tube with many small cavity gas composition; sphenoid bone in the nasal cavity in the rear of the chatter.
They are small openings and nasal interlinked. Besides participating in the sinuses moist and warm inhaled air, but also people's facial shape, supporting the head inside the skull to reduce weight play an important role.
Second, what is sinusitis
Sinusitis is inflammation of sinus appeared, medical experts sinusitis are usually divided into the following categories:
Acute sinusitis: three weeks or less
Chronic sinusitis: 3 weeks to eight weeks, but it can persist for several months to several years.
Recurrent sinusitis: sinusitis again within the year after the onset of an attack, known as recurrent sinusitis
According to the U.S., a survey: Each year Americans suffer from varying degrees of sinusitis in more than 37 million people, and because of air pollution, number of cases is increasing every year. There is no similar data in the country, but preliminary estimates that the annual prevalence of sinusitis number will more than 50 million people.
3, rhinitis, and sinusitis What is the difference
Strictly speaking, the two interrelated, seldom single incidence of rhinitis and sinusitis, it is because the structure of the nose and paranasal sinuses are interrelated. Mutual influence between the two is often a vicious cycle. However, there are differences between the two.
From the anatomical sense, between the nostrils, nasal cavity is a before and after a ventilation compartment, there are nasal mucosa inside the nasal cavity covered by nasal inflammation is rhinitis; and nasal sinus is around the skull and face bones inside the gas cavity, A total of four pairs of symmetrical, they are maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinus, each has a sinus ostium and the nasal cavity interlinked through the sinus ostium, nasal mucosa and sinus mucosa inside the continuation of each other.
We're usually talking about cold, that is, no ventilation nose, sneezing, streaming nose clear, diminished sense of smell is acute rhinitis performance. In acute rhinitis, if treated properly, nasal inflammation can spread through the sinus openings into the sinus to sinus mucosa of chronic inflammation, that is, acute sinusitis, the main symptoms are the nose is not ventilation, pus nasal discharge and headache. If acute rhinitis and acute sinusitis repeated attacks, the last can also form a chronic rhinitis and chronic sinusitis. The symptoms of chronic rhinitis is not the nose ventilation or two nostrils alternately poor ventilation, there is mucous nose.
And chronic sinusitis are often flow white glaze nose after a cold flow of yellow purulent nasal discharge, and a diminished sense of smell. On the above, rhinitis and sinusitis are closely related to their disease, but clinical manifestations vary, examination findings are also different.
4, long-term suffering from sinusitis and what are the consequences
Acute sinusitis can be headache, chills, fever, purulent nasal discharge nasal flow, whole body discomfort, lack of energy, loss of appetite and so on, children suffering from acute sinusitis, it can accompanied by high fever and convulsions occur, vomiting and diarrhea and other symptoms. Without formal treatment often turn into chronic sinusitis, acute sinusitis can also be spread out, causing otitis media, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, and even sometimes give rise to a rare orbital infection. Sinusitis headache have certain rules, with different sinus infection different.
Most patients with chronic sinusitis course of lengthy and often flow in patients with purulent nasal discharge, headache, memory loss, to live, work, inconvenience and impact. Pus surrounding the spread of infection can lead to surrounding tissue, and even can cause blindness, meningitis, brain abscess and other serious consequences, but with the extensive application of antibiotics, the serious consequences of this complication has been extremely rare.
As the purulent nasal discharge into the pharynx and long-term use mouth breathing, often accompanied by symptoms of chronic pharyngitis, such as phlegm, foreign body sensation, or throat pain. If the impact of the eustachian tube, may also have tinnitus, deafness and other symptoms. Chronic sinusitis in children's academic achievement can also be seriously affected, resulting in decreased performance. Chronic sinusitis can also be used as a lesion, leading to the vicinity of organ infection. Sinusitis can also cause asthma attacks, sinusitis and asthma have the people, should conduct the treatment of sinusitis.
5, allergic rhinitis and sinusitis relationship
For a doctor, the nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing, nose itching and other symptoms almost daily have to face the symptoms. The allergic rhinitis is the cause of these symptoms, one of the most common cause, but the clinical response to treatment of allergic rhinitis, we found that some patients with poor response to treatment. The sinusitis is often a neglected part of, so when we treat allergic rhinitis, the yet to carefully observe the patient merger sinusitis, so as to avoid fruitless believers.
Patients with allergic rhinitis is often associated with sinusitis and why do? Sinusitis refers to inflammation of the sinus mucosa, multi-hair removal because of sinus mucosal secretions function of damage caused by blocked sinus openings is the key to this pathological changes in a ring, while the sinus openings blocked, then the upper respiratory tract infections, allergic rhinitis and nasal polyps are the most common cause of allergic rhinitis and sinusitis can be seen that there is indeed a close relationship.
Sinusitis patients can be seen clinically, the patient in the upper respiratory tract infection 7 to 10 days, stuffy nose, cough symptoms persist. In pediatric patients, because of poor handling capacity of nasal secretions, postnasal dripping phenomenon often occurs, especially symptoms of night cough mainly Bi Shui can be clear or yellow pus-like, while the fever, sinus discomfort, or headache were more less. Can be seen in the pathological examination of the nasal congestion and swelling, sometimes purulent nasal discharge can be seen, with particular attention to is that in allergic rhinitis complicated sinusitis patients, allergic rhinitis may thus making the performance of the nasal mucosa becomes is not obvious.
Diagnosis of sinusitis is largely supported by a detailed clinical history and careful physical examination derived from, but because the symptoms are mostly non-specific, so we can use other methods to help diagnose include:
1. Nasal secretions cytology: Sinusitis in neutrophil mostly, and sometimes even intracellular bacteria can be seen, if the secretion of eosinophilic ball more than 10 percent, they should note that allergic rhinitis possibilities, especially pediatric patients.
But the examination found no eosinophilic ball still can not rule out the possibility of allergic rhinitis.
2. Nasal endoscopy: the need to be patient with, check with pediatric patients is sometimes poor.
3. Radiographic examination: In the acute or strict patients with acute sinusitis, as many violations of the maxillary sinus can be photographs, X films. However, patients with chronic sinusitis and multiple violations of the ethmoid sinus is the main, this time could be considered CT.
4. Translucent radiation law: we can see whether the sinusitis, but because many people do not always exactly bilateral paranasal sinuses is very symmetrical, so the sensitivity and specificity were poor.
All in all, when we diagnose a patients with allergic rhinitis, and treatment response was as expected, we must note that the possibility of merging sinusitis. In contrast, according to many studies pointed out that sinusitis patients suffering from allergic rhinitis rate much higher than the average person. So when everyone in allergic rhinitis or sinusitis won, do not ignore the close relationship between the two in order to make treatment more successful.
First, the symptoms of acute sinusitis
Acute sinusitis is sinus mucosa with acute inflammation, more than occurred in the cold, the symptoms of acute sinusitis and what kind of sinus inflammation related to early morning headache is a typical manifestation of sinusitis, the following are the different groups during the performance of sinus inflammation :
Forehead pain, early morning light, afternoon weight. May also have cheek pain or pain above teeth, mostly maxillary sinusitis. Early morning feeling forehead pain, gradually increasing Zhejiang the afternoon to reduce, to disappear at night, this may be the amount of sinusitis. Headache, light, confined to the Department of the inner canthus or nasion may also be radiation to the head at the top, multi-ethmoid inflammation caused by insects.
Deep eye pain, may be radiation Daotou top, but also out of view of the morning light, afternoon heavy occipital headache, sphenoid sinusitis may be reached.
Second, what are the symptoms of chronic sinusitis
The symptoms of chronic sinusitis is as follows:
1. Purulent nasal discharge more: the nose, mostly purulent or purulent sticky, yellow or yellow green, the amount of the number of uncertain, multi-flow throat, unilateral smell persons, more common in odontogenic maxillary sinusitis.
2. Stuffy nose: light and heavy range, multi-swollen due to nasal congestion?
3. Headache: chronic purulent sinusitis in general, clearly localized pain or headache. If headaches that often appears dull or head heaviness, weight during the day, night light. The former group more than the performance of frontal sinusitis and the Ministry of pain or Mentong nasion, the latter group of sinusitis headache in the first top, or after temporal occipital. When the teeth-derived maxillary sinusitis, often accompanied by ipsilateral above a toothache.
4. Other: As the purulent nasal discharge into the pharynx and long-term use mouth breathing, often accompanied by symptoms of chronic pharyngitis, such as phlegm, foreign body sensation, or throat pain. If the impact of the eustachian tube, may also have tinnitus, deafness and other symptoms.
5, chronic ethmoid sinus inflammation often associated with chronic maxillary sinusitis in combination, in addition to the normal symptoms of chronic purulent sinusitis, the sense of smell diminished even more pronounced.
Third, how diagnosed with chronic sinusitis
Chronic sinusitis or chronic sinusitis, said, its diagnosis depends mainly on the symptoms of sinusitis, as well as the aforementioned detailed medical examination. When necessary, photo X-ray film, CT or engage in sinus endoscopy. The diagnosis of chronic sinusitis is as follows:
1, the aforementioned symptoms of chronic sinusitis
2, ENT doctors nasal examination. Nasal examination can have the following performance: changes in the upper part of the main lesion in the nasal cavity, showing that the middle turbinate edema or hypertrophy, or have nasal polyps. Some have multiple polyps.
Sinusitis can be seen in the former group and the inferior turbinate nasal meatus purulent secretions stick attached to the surface of the latter group of sinusitis can be seen in the olfactory groove and posterior meatus there are sticky pus.
3, postural drainage: a doctor if there is suspected chronic purulent sinusitis and middle meatus or olfactory groove when no pus retention, but also requires patients to postural drainage inspections.
4, maxillary sinus puncture and lavage: the Ministry of maxillary sinus puncture and washing both pairs of maxillary sinusitis as a diagnostic method, but also a kind of therapeutic measures. Out of fluid should be aerobic bacterial culture.
5, X ray radiography sinuses: the diagnosis is not clear or suspected to have other diseases, could help diagnose.
6, dental checks: In the suspicious Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis, it should carry out the dental examination.
4, sinusitis and headache
Sinusitis or sinusitis often have nasal congestion, purulent nasal discharge and headache and other streaming performance, the performance of which headache is the most important one, but first need to understand, and some headaches are caused by sinusitis, while others have headaches and sinus Yan, and does not matter.
Sinus headache can be handled in the front of the nose can also be deep in the eye, or even appear in the neck, or radiation to the teeth, the degree of severity ranging from headaches, light and only oppressive, in serious cases a very serious . Sinusitis is usually inflammation of the sinus headaches and the. Head movements usually will add to this headache. Otolaryngology-line symptomatology described in detail in a headache, it can be for reference. But sometimes the exact cause of a headache really difficult to diagnose.
Non-sinusitis and sinusitis-induced headache is sometimes indistinguishable from, for example, it can also occur in the front of the nose or eye. Only a few patients with sinusitis and a headache without other symptoms such as nasal congestion flow purulent nasal discharge, etc., so if you are the only symptoms of headache, sinusitis, highly unlikely. Because the nasal lesions caused by other headache is relatively common, such as nasal septum deviation, etc., which require ENT doctors in the nasal cavity examination. Sometimes accompanied by nasal polyps
5, acute sinusitis: children tend to be more sensitive to antibiotics such as Amoxycillin, Pioneer ADM and so on, nasal decongestant drugs such as ephedrine nose drops can be short-term use classes to reduce my son's stuffy nose, saline solution, and some Drugs can dilute the thick nasal secretions of children and help to restore the disease.
If your child is suffering from acute sinusitis, medication, after a few days ago will be marked improvement in general condition. Be noted at this time, at least within a week, even if the symptoms have been significantly improved, still need to continue oral antibiotics in order to complete the treatment of sinusitis in children. If the cause of allergic inside, the doctor can give you allergy medication was added.