The four properties exist both in humans, animals and plants. They interact in the human body, thus creating the theory of temperament in Uygur medicine. The theory of Uygur medicine believes that a person's facial appearance, skin color, body shape,personality and mood, living habits and mental state are related to temperament.
The theory of Uygur medicine is based on its philosophical thought. The ancestors of the Uygur ethnic group recognized that fire, air, water and soil are sources of other things in the world when seeking to explain the universe and creation, change and development. The living environment of humankind in the natural world, the origin of life and matter on earth, or even the diseases contracted by human body, are closely related to the four major elements of the natural world, namely fire, air, water and soil. Such knowledge evolved further into a theory of the four major substances and became the theoretical basis of Uygur medicine. This argues that the four major substances create in human body four kinds of properties, i.e. heat, moisture, coldness and dryness, all necessary for survival.
"Mizagyi" theory is the theory of temperament. This is a new property created under mutually-influential minimum sectional properties of one of the four major substances. It refers not only human characteristic properties such as physiology and psychology but also the common name of the characteristic properties of all things (plants, animals and minerals) in the world. It is divided into four major pure categories of coldness, heat, moisture and dryness. There are four complicated classifications of dry heat, moist heat, moist coldness and dry coldness. They can be divided into normal and abnormal conditions according to an excess or insufficiency. For the human body, normal temperament is used to describe its physiological state while abnormal temperament is used to describe pathological change.
Normal temperament: includes eight kinds, i.e. moderate heat, coldness, moisture,dryness, dry heat, moist heat, moist coldness and dry coldness. Abnormal temperament: includes eight kinds, i.e. immoderate heat, coldness, moisture, dryness, dry heat, moist heat, moist coldness and dry coldness.
Uygur medicine is mainly composed of theories of temperament, liquid and organ.
It believes that disease is caused mainly by unbalanced temperament and atrabiliary
abnormality. To treat an illness, this must first be eliminated.
"Azha" theory is also known as the theory of organs. Uygur medicine regards internal components of the body, such as the brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, gall, stomach, esophagus, duodenum, large intestine, small intestine, bladder, womb, bone and muscle, and external components, such as skin, hair, nail, eye, ear, mouth, tooth, tongue, as organs. The anatomy of Uygur medicine is basically the same with that of modern medicine. However, it is different from modern medicine in discussing physiology. Uygur medicine holds that any organ has a particular temperament corresponding to its own function. It divides the organs into controlling organs and controlled organs according to function and action.
Controlling organs refer to the brain, heart and liver. They are the parts ensuring man' s vitality, spirit and natural force and their starting points as well. They not only play an important role in ensuring survival and reproductive ability and control mental and physical activities but also instruct the controlled organs to regulate, enrich and control,in general, any life activity through their indirect actions, so as to maintain bodily integrity.For example, the brain is the center of the spirit because it produces ideas, sensations and movements. For various parts of brain, the cortex controls different parts of brain.
Controlled organs refer to organs that can produce a certain influence under instruction of the controlling organs and continue to accomplish their own functions, i.e. other organs except for the brain, heart and liver.
The temperament of an organ is a special notion created through combining the temperament theory of Uygur medicine with the theory of the organ. It believes that any organ is characterized by a particular temperament corresponding to its function. Understanding its temperament and changes is important to finding correct methods and ensuring proper treatment. Organs with the temperament of dry heat: gallbladder; organs with temperament of moist heat: liver, heart, muscle, lung, esophagus, duodenum and small intestine; organs with the temperament of moist coldness: minimum-unit (cell), body fat, stomach, brain, kidney and spinal marrow; organs with the temperament of dry coldness: spleen, bones, hair, nail, cartilage, ligament, membrane, large intestine and urinary bladder; organs with a moderate temperament: finger, palm, back of the hand, and skin.
"Teliti" theory is also known as the theory of body fluid. This refers to four major substances of the natural world -- fire, air, water and soil, and four kinds of body liquids, i.e. bile, blood, phlegm and atrabiliary which are created through normal functioning of the liver by taking in nutritious substances as raw materials under the influence of human temperament. They are consumed and supplemented constantly in the whole life activity of the human body so as to maintain a balanced state of certain proportion and sustain normal conditions. Their balance is relative, but resistance is absolute. The four kinds of body liquids keep a certain balance in quantity and quality, showing the normal physiological state of body or diseased state on the contrary. Body liquids include normal liquid and abnormal liquid.
Normal liquid refers to liquid that keeps its original, natural and normal state and functions, renders vitality to life activities of the body and corresponds to. one' s temperament. Normal liquids of body include normal bile, blood, phlegm and atrabiliary.
Abnormal liquid of body refers to non-beneficial or harmful liquid that exceeds normal levels created by liver and changes in quantity and quality. Such liquids include abnormal bile, blood, phlegm and atrabiliary according to changes in degree, action, symptoms and disease.
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