1, stunted penis after the penis and scrotum
Stunted penis is extremely rare (in the literature so far reported only 36 cases), and can be associated with other urinary tract anomalies and intestinal lower genital abnormalities. Such abnormal embryonic development of external genitalia in the Department of the obstacles caused by drugs or is currently no satisfactory treatment can make hand-wood has a perfect function of the penis and should therefore be the decisive move to be identified as female sex, and surgical removal of the testicle with for artificial vaginoplasty. Begins at puberty estrogen in order to promote the formation of women's habits and their secondary sexual characteristics.
Occurred in the scrotum after the penis (ie, "the scrotum after the penis"), their performance has stunted the beginning and the penis are very similar. The scrotum have been reported in the literature of patients after a total of 15 cases of penis. Such patients may also be associated with urinary tract abnormalities: the anatomy of the penis may be normal, but its location was unusual. It also may reflect the different levels of embryogenesis obstacles. Into the right part of the disease, the application of surgery to the penis may be re-located in the front of the scrotum.
Second, pairs of the penis
Pairs of the penis is a rare anomaly of male external genitalia, it is estimated 5.5 million people were born for every one cases occurred only those pairs of penis. Wilson1973 cited in a review of 108 cases in these patients. Typical pairs of the penis in patients with only a functional penis, and a urethra, therefore, only in the patient to conduct a detailed inspection of the urinary system Kui, and figure out the urethra opening only after should be the appropriate surgical treatment.
Third, the small penis
While many parents have their child are concerned about the size of the penis, but in fact a small penis is not common. Strictly speaking, the small penis is formed in the embryo, which is mainly manifested in the size of an exception, rather than the shape of the anomaly. Location of a small penis urethra is normal, and can distinguish between the penis head and body; the size of the testes may be normal. Cause of small penis is not clear, but sometimes it seems to pregnancy after 4 ~ 9-month period related to insufficient androgen secretion. In some cases, a small penis may also occur in other disorders, these disorders manifested in the hypothalamus or pituitary gland abnormalities (such as anencephaly, congenital absence of pituitary gland, Prader-Willi syndrome, Kallman's syndrome and Meckel's syndrome) or testicular abnormalities, or chromosomal abnormalities; while other small penis patients were also seen in healthy babies.
In view of growing a small penis may be some psychological impact on children, so topical 1% testosterone cream in the treatment of about 3 ~ 6 months, yes - the kinds of desirable methods, such therapy is often developed to enable medium-sized penis. If the efficacy of this method are not satisfied, they may consider giving parenteral testosterone therapy for 3 months; It was reported that such an approach can promote the growth of the penis, and only short-term role in promoting bone growth and mild masculine role. However, it should be emphasized that in childhood should try to avoid using too many male hormones, because the male hormone therapy prematurely due to the hip bone healing may limit the future growth of long bones. Money and Mazur's two recent reports, the application juvenile flexible plastic penis to a 9-year-old patients with penile implant success. This operation has enabled the children to stand urination, thereby enhancing their self-esteem.
Since puberty and normal testosterone secretion can promote the growth of the penis, so if adulthood is still as small penis, reflects the potential in vivo in patients with hormone disorder. If it is confirmed that there a lack of testosterone, then given parenteral testosterone may have some effects. However, most concerned about their penis size of men, their penis in the anatomy is normal. In some cases, due to obesity or swelling of the scrotum, the penis may seem small, but it is not mentioned in this section of the "small penis." Unless it is indeed a small penis, penis size is generally not harmful effects on sexual function. However, those who worry too much about penis size (including the male and female), then it may be due to fears of sexual intercourse difficult.
Hypospadias is a ventral urethral opening on the penis or perineum. This congenital anomaly in about every 125 boys may appear in 1 case. In most cases, this anomaly is only mild and urethra at the penis head or Coronal. Some patients may have hypospadias penile ventral curvature, this caused the Department of fiber tape. In some cases, due to the penis reversed, the location of the penis could be skewed.
Occurrence of hypospadias was due to the normal embryonic development of the genitals has changed or interrupted. Embryonic development of this change may be due to fetal testicular androgen secretion in a delayed or inadequate secretion of the target organ is not sensitive to the role of male hormones, fetal development during the application of the progestogen-only drugs (or estrogen) caused by factors such as . There is evidence that patients with severe hypospadias testosterone relative lack of sustainability into adulthood.
If the moderate or severe degree of hypospadias untreated, then the patient's sexual function and sexual behavior may be affected. Because both psychological and physical reasons, patients may occur in life in certain practical problems. For example, hypospadias boys, perhaps because of abnormal position of urethral opening seating solution had to take urine, which may lead to ridicule around the students so that children's self-esteem, men are affected the formation of character. For similar reasons, there is hypospadias to avoid the adult males may be interested in sex life. In addition, the penis dysplasia, painful erection, a lack of testosterone, and other genitourinary anomalies and other issues, the sick into the erectile function may be subject to varying degrees of damage. According to recent studies, the central part of the penis or more severe hypospadias patients, if not treated, can occur throughout the ventral penile curvature; 23 patients with untreated head of the penis-type or Coronal hypospadias patients and found that 8 cases of a similar situation; 35 cases of untreated distal penile hypospadias patients, there were 21 cases of a similar situation exists. Central or a more serious penis hypospadias have a penile curvature.
There are many literature on hypospadias and penile curvature surgical treatment. As long as conditions permit, should strive for - surgeries are fully restored. The purpose of surgical treatment are: to correct penile curvature side of the stoop to restore the normal position of urethra. There neonatal hypospadias, circumcision should not be made because of its organization in surgical foreskin reconstruction surgery can be used. For surgery is more appropriate for the age, There is no unified opinion, it is generally thought that 2 to 4 at the age of surgery is appropriate. At this point Teki allow children in the preschool that is able to correct the anatomical defects, and to reduce the psychological trauma caused by surgery. However, because the baby's penis is very small, so at this time there is a certain procedure is technically difficult.
Surgical therapy can successfully make 70 ~ 80% of the hypospadias patients come to correct penile curvature and the restoration of normal erectile function and urination. Should be pointed out that the penis head type of hypospadias usually does not require surgical treatment of hand-wood. Kenawi found that only in hypospadias surgery is unsuccessful cases, the patient may occur after treatment of sexual dysfunction. Farks and Hynie found that in childhood made a hypospadias repair in 130 patients, 17% of patients had erectile dysfunction, most of them are interested in sexual intercourse or sexual intercourse to avoid the very few. In contrast, recently published data indicate that a long-term study, people with hypospadias in male patients, their puberty, sexual life begins to age and sexual function are related to the normal income group is almost no difference. By the dry improvements in surgical techniques, in addition to the most severe hypospadias patients, most of the disease into the open to resume more normal sexual function.
Epispadias (campbell) is a rare, about every 30,000 men can be found in 1 case. The disease is characterized by absence of the upper wall of the urethra. The urethral opening on the dorsal surface of the penis. Epispadias can be simple, and can also be combined with bladder exstrophy and abdominal anomalies. Male epispadias can be divided into the penis head type, the penis-type and all types of three. Male patients with severe epispadias, the penis short small, and the dorsal bend, often sexual intercourse difficult or impossible sexual intercourse, and thus the loss of reproductive functions. Surgical treatment needs to correct urinary incontinence, urinary tract and impact of abnormal position of sexual intercourse penile curvature. Sometimes still need to take some kind of urinary diversion surgery, such surgery is more complex. Generally speaking, apart from simple epispadias addition, after surgical treatment fully restored to normal sexual function is unlikely.