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Small penis is caused by what?

Tuesday, Aug 21,2012, 10:01:18 PM   Click:

   Cause of disease

    Small penis are: ① hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; ② excessive gonadotropin secretion hypogonadism; ③ primary small penis.

  1, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

(1) brain structural abnormalities: anencephalic children with no secretion of hypothalamic pituitary function, even in normal development, due to the absence of gonadotropin releasing hormone, resulting in less testosterone secretion, resulting in a small penis. Congenital pituitary hypoplasia, partial brain agenesis of the corpus callosum in hypothalamic dysfunction, occipital encephalocele with ataxia cerebellar malformations cerebral midline developmental anomalies, all because of gonadotropin secretion caused by shortage of small penis. In addition to other systems with multiple malformations.

(2) no brain abnormalities in congenital gonadotropin releasing hormone deficiency: this causes small penis more than the former see, specific etiology is not clear, for a variety of syndromes, such as Kallmann, Padma Willy syndrome, often associated with multiple malformations, according to research and chromosome, gene abnormality relevant to. As well as the endocrine, biochemical metabolic abnormalities caused by gonadotropin releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone deficiency.

  2, excessive gonadotropin secretion of hypogonadism in such patients in the hypothalamus, pituitary secretion function were normal, but in the late gestation testicles degeneration caused by testosterone secretion decreased, negative feedback pathway due to excessive gonadotropin secretion. The main reason caused small penis in the testis itself, such as congenital absence of testis, testicular descent is not congruent. Some patients with normal testis, but the luteinizing hormone receptor abnormalities, and cannot secrete enough testosterone. In addition to pay attention to any sexual abnormality.

       3, primary small penis in addition to the above reasons, there are a small number of patients in the hypothalamic pituitary testicular axis hormone secretion in normal, but a small penis abnormalities, and can grow to adolescence. Etiology is not clear, is entirely possible that the late embryonic gonadotropin stimulation delay, have one of the reasons for the drop in testosterone secretion. There are also a small number of patients may be abnormal androgen receptor.

Small penis in patients with sex chromosome abnormalities, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY), X syndrome (48, XXXY and 49, XXXXY), multiple chromosomes (69, XXY triploid) deformity.

Normal male penile development in the embryonic period before 12 completed weeks, divided into 3 stages. For the first phase of the genital tubercle, genital tubercle gradually extend similar hillock, grow 8 ~ 15mm.The second stage for the body of penis, in dihydrotestosterone under the action of the penis continues to grow is cylindrical, ca. 16 ~ 38mm, the urethral groove extending to the glans of the penis. Third stage penile length is 38 ~ 45mm, urethral development completed.

Embryonic development to seventh ~ 8 weeks of reproductive glands gradually differentiate into the testis, and in the placenta produces human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation, Leydig cells to produce testosterone. Pregnancy after 4 months of fetal hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, stimulation of anterior pituitary produces luteinizing hormone and urinary gonadotrophin. In HCG, LH and FSH under the common action of testosterone, testicular continuously produced, testosterone in 5- reductase under the stimulation of the penis grow gradually transformed into DHT. Small penis multiple embryos after 14 weeks of hormone deficiency.
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