Leukemia was going through a lot of research work, but not yet fully understood causes of leukemia. Currently considered the following factors:
1. Viral factors: the early 50's discovered a murine leukemia virus infection in newborn rats after neonatal mice can lead to leukemia. Therefore, it has been suspected of human leukemia may also be caused by a virus, but has long been no definite conclusions. Until recently, in the etiology of human leukemia virus, able to achieve a major breakthrough. RNA tumor virus in mice, cats, chickens and cattle and other animals, had already recognized the role of induced leukemia, this virus is mostly due to T-cell leukemia. In recent years, from adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma in patients with isolated human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), which is a C-type retrovirus. In the Japanese T-cell leukemia patients were also found in the serum anti-HTLV-structural protein antibodies. However, such a virus has not yet found a clear relationship between the children with leukemia.
2. Chemical factors: some chemical substances caused leukemia effect. Regular contact with benzene and its derivatives, the crowd of leukemia is higher than the general population incidence. Such as diphenyl anthracene, pyrene and other benzene-induced leukemia in mice in the. Nitrosamine substance Phenylbutazone and its derivatives, such as chloramphenicol-induced leukemia, the report also can be seen, but the lack of statistical information. Some of the anti-tumor cytotoxic drugs, such as nitrogen mustard, cyclophosphamide, methyl benzyl hydrazine, VP16, VM26 and so there is an acknowledged role of leukemia induced by chemical substances caused leukemia, mostly acute Feilin white hyperlipidemia. Prior to the emergence of leukemia, often present an early stage of leukemia, usually manifested pancytopenia.
3. Ionizing radiation: there is clear evidence that certain conditions can cause a variety of ionizing radiation of human leukemia. The occurrence of leukemia depends on the absorbed radiation dose, the whole body or part of the body by the medium-dose or high-dose radiation can induce leukemia. However, small doses of radiation can cause leukemia, is still uncertain. Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki after the atomic bomb explosion, serious radiation areas in the incidence of leukemia was unaffected radiation area 17 ~ 30 times. 3 years after the explosion, the incidence of leukemia increased year by year, 5 to 7 years reached its peak. To 20 years later, its incidence rate is restored to a level close to the Japanese. This is the radiation can cause the most direct evidence of human leukemia. Radiation workers, frequent contact with radioactive material and the incidence of leukemia has also several times higher than normal, often accept the diagnosis and treatment of radiation can lead to increased incidence of leukemia, which also proved that radiation does cause leukemia effect.
4. Genetic factors: In recent years studies have proven that the number of chromosomes increase or decrease the number of such abnormalities, as well as translocation, inversion, deletion and other structural abnormalities, so that gene structure, expression abnormalities. Gene expression or gene inactivation of one of the foundations of cell malignant transformation. There chromosomal aberrations of people is higher than normal incidence of leukemia. Such as the 21 - Children with trisomy 10-year-old leukemia incidence rate of less than 1 / 74, Bloom syndrome, the incidence rate of less than 26-year-old 1 / 3, Fanconi (congenital aplastic anemia) syndrome 21-year-old the incidence rate of less than 1 / 12. Some statistical analysis of the same family, several cases of leukemia occurred in the patient's condition that there are genetic factors which may exist, when the family has a member of leukemia, his next of kin leukemia chance than most people 4 times higher. In some congenital diseases such as type of congenital stupidity, also more prone to leukemia. Twins in the same eggs in one leukemia, the other party the opportunity leukemia as high as 25%. These examples illustrate the pathogenesis of leukemia, there exists the possibility of genetic factors.
5. Other blood disorders: Some blood diseases may be found that acute leukemia, such as chronic myeloid leukemia, polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, bone marrow fibrosis, myelodysplastic syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria urine, lymphoma, multiple myeloma.
Overall, the incidence of leukemia is a complex result of the role of multiple factors, genetic predisposition, viruses, radiation, chemical substances may interact, with overlapping roles in the occurrence of leukemia.