A healthy people from infection with HIV (HIV) to death, is generally divided into three phases, the first stage, known as HIV acute infection period, infection, a minority of infected persons will appear flu-like symptoms such as fever, sore throat, rash, swollen lymph nodes and so on, within 2-3 weeks, these symptoms will naturally disappear.
Then, infected persons entering a second phase, which is called asymptomatic phase, about the whole process from infection to death for 80% of the time, when the patients were known HIV carriers, the surface most of the infected is healthy, with no difference between normal, but the body's immune system is working with the virus the invisible struggle.
HIV every day, destroying a large number of immune cells, through the acceleration of bone marrow to generate new cells to be compensated, but the additional speed of the new cells are always can not keep up the speed of cell loss. In the normal human body, per cubic millimeter of blood, about 800-1000 of immune cells, while the infection inside the body, per cubic millimeter of blood immune cells Zeyi annual declining rate of 50-70 months, when the immune cells to reduce to the one cubic millimeter of blood, only 200 or so when the rate of decline will accelerate. Asymptomatic infected persons sustained period of time may be longer or shorter, as little as two years, the number of up to 20 years, its length is closely related with the infection route, under normal circumstances, blood infection (mainly for illegal blood collection and sharing of syringes ) for 4-5 years, 11-13 years of sexual infections generally, if an asymptomatic infected person can reach 13 years, it can be called a long-term survivors of the.
When the body's immune cells infected with HIV have been unable to compete when the marks into the final stage of HIV infection, said the symptomatic stage, when the infection were called AIDS (AIDS) patients, they are very vulnerable to other diseases, infection, some people would not normally pose a threat to the lives of the ordinary infectious diseases such as pneumonia, etc. Once the body would be beyond the control of AIDS, people usually die within 6 to 24 months.
Transmission of a Branch in Guangzhou city hospital for infectious diseases, said Dr. Cai Weiping, AIDS patients, there will be a variety of burst disorders, such as the contiguous skin, herpes, meningitis, cancer, tuberculosis, hepatitis and so on, a male weighing 100 kilograms could be reduced to seven 10 kilograms, deep-set eyes, hair loss, muscle atrophy, difficulty breathing, skin itching intolerable, or even dementia, memory loss, dying like a skeleton wrapped in skin.
Once infected with HIV, the possibility of unsafe sex is what?
Is not an unsafe sex will be infected with HIV? Why homosexuals susceptible to AIDS?
The West from the late eighties started to investigate the law of sexual contact, studies have shown that the risk of male to male transmission of the highest, followed by the females for male and female transmission of male and female the females, but in a different sex in the , anal sex with the greatest risk of transmission, then unprotected vaginal intercourse, oral sex, masturbation.
Statistics show that the risk of male-male probability is 1 / 10 to 1 / 1600, that is, if a healthy man with an infected male to 10 times unprotected anal intercourse, there will be one infected with HIV, while the most optimistic The statistics are a 1600 times before, this is also gay men vulnerable to HIV causes. Other risk probability is that, male to female transmission 1/200-1/2000, female to male transmission of 1/700-1/3000, female to female transmission has not been reliable statistical data. It is estimated that in Thailand, women through sexual intercourse will be the possibility of HIV transmission to male sexual contact for every 100 times an average of 3-6 people have been infected.
Both developed and developing countries, sexual intercourse are the major means of HIV transmission, but other methods are more likely spread the virus. According to various estimates, the mother will be the probability of transmission of the virus to their babies is 13% -48%, if the medical process with HIV in accidental needle puncture the skin of the blood, the possibility of the virus is only 1/250, or 0.3%, but the importation of blood with HIV, its transmission rate is 90% -100%.
Another study showed that, HIV transmission due to the infection period in which infected persons differ significantly. Under normal circumstances, the early-communicable diseases, the highest probability of infection is 1/10-1/20, because at this time the virus infected the highest levels of the body, and the second peak of asymptomatic infectious period is coming to the end of the upcoming clinical stage period, infection rate 1/100-1/200, asymptomatic phase of infection probability is 1 / 1000.
1 pairs of gay survey results show that unprotected anal intercourse in one, if sexual partners are in the early stages of the most contagious, the recipient has been the possibility of infection was 10% -30% in infected the medium term, the possibility of the recipient was infected with only 0.01 -0 * 1%, but in the late stage of infection, the possibility of infection rose again to 0.1 -1%.
Insect bite will not transmit AIDS?
When the mosquito blood meal does not own or just to suck the blood of the person being bitten into, but only into the saliva as a lubricant in order to suck blood. And HIV-1 replication in the mosquitoes can not survive a very short time, thus, even if the virus enters the body can not be infected mosquito mosquito or spread to others.
There are also other reasons could explain that without fear of mosquito-transmitted HIV. First, the infected blood do not always have a high level of virus production; second, the surface of mosquito population in general, only a very small amount of blood, the study found, mosquitoes lips only 0.0004 milliliters of residual blood, the figure of , to the destination must be a continuous mosquito bites AIDS 2800 times, residual blood in order to bring an adequate amount of HIV virus and then infect another healthy people, in fact, research scientists found that insects, blood-sucking mosquitoes in the post - usually do not bite right away the next one, but take a very long period of time to digest sucked blood.
Studies have shown that, with other popular viruses such as hepatitis, pneumonia, malaria and other than, HIV-1 is a very fragile virus, which survive outside the human body will not take more than 34 hours, hot water, soap, alcohol , bleach is the enemy of HIV-1 virus in the body can not survive acidic stomach environment, therefore, the experts pointed out that those afraid of HIV-1 through the insect bite or a public swimming pool are undoubtedly worried about the spread of the excess .
Once the skin has been scratched and have the risk of exposure to the virus, the most simple and effective way is to wound the surface of blood squeezed out, and then use disinfectant cleaning without disinfectant, there are a lot of soap or clean water rinse will also reduce infection possibilities.
Other studies also showed that human saliva contains trace the virus, if the mouth or lips of the mucous membrane is not damaged, the virus can not be transmitted through saliva. However, the French research shows that the French might be the long deep-kiss lips mouth or mucous membrane damage caused by HIV-1 enter the body through a wound.
The most effective treatment for AIDS, what is?
HIV-1 Although the disease is incurable, but on the medical aspects of a lot of progress has been made in medical research? The first has been proven to prevent HIV-1 replication in the patient's body is a drug AZT (also known as AZT), the late eighties when AZT came in the Western developed countries, the patient for one year costs about 10000 U.S. dollars, by 1997 down to 2738 U.S. dollars, Thailand and several other developing countries through negotiations, so that the cost per patient per year dropped to 657 U.S. dollars.
However, AZT can only be extended so that each patient an average of about six months of healthy living. In 1994, a more effective use of three kinds of anti-retroviral drugs, treatment methods have been invented, because it is a combination of therapy, so called cocktail therapy (or HAART therapy).
The new anti-viral combination therapy in Europe and the United States has significantly reduced the burst of the AIDS disease and mortality. Owing to the role of the therapy on the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease, so strongly inhibit HIV-1 replication in vivo. Cocktail therapy in early stage of infection, allowing the maintenance of normal CD4 cell count, CD4/CD8 cells (both immune cells) increased the ratio of lymph node structure intact significantly reduces the blood and tissue viral loads. Europe, some Asian countries and the United States a number of acute and chronic infection has been applied in these antiviral drugs.
Cocktail therapy can also be used to prevent iatrogenic HIV infection. The United States survey of 260 health care workers, if the medical staff in the course of their work once they are infected blood weapon stab the skin, as long as 2 hours on medication, the risk of infection is zero. If the medication within 4 hours, risk may be increased by 20%, more than 48 hours, was the possibility of infection was 100%.
Cocktail therapy is now considered the most effective control of HIV-1 replication method of treatment. However, the treatment side effects is very clear and very expensive, about a year take 10 million yuan.
AZT to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, this year November 7-9, the Chinese Ministry of Health, Center for AIDS Prevention and Control Professor Cao Yunzhen, deputy director of the Guangzhou up to prevent HIV-1 mother to child transmission prevention and treatment classes. One of the most exciting news is that the use of AZT and the new NVP (vitamin A) on the HIV-1 infection in pregnant women and their infants preventive treatment, can the rate of mother to child transmission from 15 ~ 40% to 8 ￣ 10 %, the program is widely used in Europe and America. In particular vitamin A, each drug only four dollars.
Studies have shown that babies in the mother's womb is only a 5% chance of infection, while 85% would be born during the mother's vagina as exists in the virus infected, and the other is through infected breast milk, breastfeeding can increase 25% -35% of the risk. At present, in the West, an effective way to interrupt mother to child transmission before or at birth during delivery and accurate use of drugs, use of caesarean section, to stop breastfeeding. Third People's Hospital of Kunming in Yunnan Province in the under the guidance of Professor Cao Yunzhen, at present China is the first use of drugs blocking the implementation of mother to child transmission of the hospital for 3 this year has HIV-1 infected pregnant women in the implementation of PMTCT, 3 infants still in follow-up inspection to the present.