A) acute diarrhea: Multi-course not more than three weeks, the most common causes of infection.
1. Food poisoning: As the food is Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, folder membrane gas Clostridium, botulinum toxin, such as pollution, more than the performance of non-inflammatory watery diarrhea.
2. Gastro-intestinal infections:
(1) virus infection: rotavirus, Norwalk virus, adenovirus intestinal infection, the small intestine can occur non-inflammatory non-diarrhea.
(2) Bacterial infections: Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli can cause intestinal watery non-inflammatory. Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter genus Yersinia enterocolitis (Yersinia entcrocolitica), invasive E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Clostridium difficile bacteria can be induced colitis, resulting in blood diarrhea.
(3) parasitic infections: Caterpillar Giardia, Cryptosporidium infection can be caused by the small intestine watery non-inflammatory. Entamoeba histolytica intestinal inflammation caused by violations of the colon, ulcers and blood diarrhea.
(4) travelers diarrhea: is the trip or the occurrence of diarrhea after travel. The majority of infections caused by pathogens often enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Giardia caterpillars, such as Entamoeba histolytica.
(5) drug-induced diarrhea: laxative, hyperosmotic drugs to cholinergic drugs, antibiotics and certain blood pressure drugs or anti-arrhythmic drug, in the period will not diarrhea medication.
(B) chronic diarrhea: chronic diarrhea of the disease in more than two months, the cause is more complex than acute, so the diagnosis and treatment very difficult sometimes, is the focus of discussion in this chapter.
1. Intestinal infectious diseases:
① chronic amoebic dysentery;
② chronic bacterial diseases;
③ intestinal tuberculosis;
④ flagellar pear disease, schistosomiasis;
⑤ intestinal candidiasis.
2. Noninfective intestinal inflammation:
① inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis);
② radiation enteritis;
③ ischemic colitis;
⑤ uremic enteritis.
① colorectal cancer;
② colorectal neoplasia (polyps);
③ malignant lymphoma of the small intestine;
④ amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation tumors (APU-Doma); gastrinoma, carcinoid tumor, intestinal vasoactive intestinal peptide tumor (VIPoma) and so on.
4. Intestinal malabsorption:
(1) primary small intestinal malabsorption.
(2) secondary intestinal malabsorption.
① the lack of pancreatic digestive enzymes, such as chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, pancreatic fistula, etc.;
② disaccharide deficiency, such as lactose intolerance;
③ combination of bile and bile salt blocked from inadequate, such as extrahepatic biliary obstruction, intrahepatic cholestasis, intestinal bacteria is too long (blind loop syndrome) and so on.
2) surface to reduce the intestinal absorption:
① too small bowel resection (short bowel syndrome);
② proximal small intestine - the colon, such as anastomosis or fistula.
3) infiltration of small intestinal disease: Whipple disease, α-heavy chain disease, such as systemic sclerosis.
5. Exercise-induced diarrhea: motility disorders (mostly to speed up) cause, such as irritable bowel syndrome after subtotal gastrectomy, vagotomy, some intestinal obstruction, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, such as adrenal cortex.
6. Drug-induced diarrhea:
① laxatives such as phenolphthalein, senna, etc.;
② antibiotics such as lincomycin, chlorine lincomycin, neomycin, etc.;
③ antihypertensive agents such as reserpine, guanidine bromide, etc.;
④ such as hepatic encephalopathy use lactulose, sorbitol, such as milk.
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