The Ming and Qing Dynasties witnessed another flourishing age in the history of tuina development. In the field of infantile tuina professional works were published in succession. Xiao'er Tuina Fangmai Huoying Mizhi Quanshu (Imperial Physician's Complete Classic of the Secret Principles of Tuina to Bring Infants Back to Life), also called Complete Classic of Infantile Tuina, was the earliest published book in separate edition. Xiao'er Tuina Mijue (the Secret of Infant Tuina Therapy) written by Zhou Yufan most vividly described eight manipulations. Xiong Yingxiong's Xiao'er Tuina Guangyi (Elucidations of Tuina for Infants) had attached remedies commonly used for children, which was considered the perfect book in the Qing Dynasty.
Xia Yuzhu's YoukeTiering (the Iron Mirror of Pediatrics) showed ingenuity and had many more differences from other books.
He also wrote Tuina Daiyao Fu (the Prose of Tuina Used for Replacing Medication), which made people find everything fresh and new. Youke Tuina Mi-shu (Secrets of Tuina of Pediatric Speciality), written by Luo Rulong, was the most minute and incisive book with clear presentation, and a shortcut of learning infantile tuina. Tuina Sanzijing (the Three-character Classics on Tuina), written by Xu Qianguang, is read smooth and rhythmic. If it is learned by heart disease, you can employ them with high proficiency in treatment. In his Lizheng Anmo Yaoshu (Revised Synopsis of Tuina ), Zhang Zhenjun absorbed the strong points of many scholars and put forward for the first time eight manipulations of infantile tuina: pressing, rubbing, nipping, kneading, pushing, arc-pushing, palm-twisting and rotating, which symbolized the formation of independent therapeutic system of infantile tuina. Meanwhile, adult tuina was further developed.
It presented a situation of hundreds of flowers blossoming and decades of schools calming into being, such as bone-setting tunia, point-pressing tuina, one finger meditation tuina, eye tuina, surgery tuina, internal exercise tuina, keep-fit tuina, too numerous to enumerate. In a word, the Ming and Qing Dynasties were an important period of overall development, summarization and creation in the history of tuina.
The Republic of China constituted the key period of linking up the preceding and the following and forming schools in the history of tuina. These schools included one-finger manipulation tuina, meridian and visceral tuina, point-pressing tuina, abdominal TCM diagnosis tuina, internal exercise tuina, rolling tuina, gastropathy tuina, etc. Yet owing to some historical limitations the academic, schools of tuina were developed only among the people, inherited and taught in the master-apprentice mode and passed on through oral instruction and learned by heart. It was a pity that they could not be sorted out systematically and fostered and enhanced.