1. Eyelid tumor
Benign and malignant eyelid tumor sub-types.
Benign tumors: including mole, hemangioma, dermoid cyst.
① mole. Congenital. Ministry of Foreign canthus palpebral margin more common, pale brown or dark brown flat elevated, compared with clear boundaries, may have black hair. Generally do not need treatment, such as the impact of vision or malignant behavior should be in the surgical excision.
② hemangioma. Is a congenital vascular tissue abnormalities. Can be divided into capillary-type or sponge-like vascular type.
A. location of capillary-type shallow, the skin was bright red or dark red patches.
B. sponge-like type. Location deeper, showing blue-purple, sometimes in-depth orbit.
Angioma therapy with surgery depending on the circumstances, radiation, freezing, electrical diathermy or local injection sclerotherapy.
③ dermoid cyst. Are congenital cysts as a single room or multi-room nature of keratinization within the sebaceous gland secretions and material, but also may have hair or teeth. Smooth surface, no adhesion with the skin, good hair in the lateral upper eyelid. Treatment methods to use more surgery.
(2) malignant tumor:
① basal cell carcinoma. More common in the elderly, "" the elderly, often occurs in the lower eyelid medial canthal Department, initially for small papules, asymptomatic, after the center ulcers, the formation of a typical hardground curling, rough. In general surgery.
② squamous cell carcinoma. More common in elderly men, a higher degree of malignancy, ulcer depth varies basement hard, clear boundaries and have potential excavation of the edge of plump vegetables pattern was advised surgery.
③ meibomian gland carcinoma. This pathogen occurred at meibomian gland malignant tumor, more common in older women, and the boundaries of early cancer, clear, hard, and the skin without adhesion, palpebral conjunctiva yellow-white uplift, cancer organizations can break the human skin, showing cauliflower-like. The disease should an early wide surgical excision.
2. Intraocular tumors
(1) retinoblastoma: a family of genetic diseases, mostly in five-year-old disease, is a retinal tissue of malignant intraocular tumors, monocular more. Will generally be divided into tumor progression in the eyes of growing season, glaucoma, "" view of glaucoma, eye spreading period and the transfer period of four stages.
Early stage of this disease are visually impaired, or even blindness, but the children do not tell, until the pupil dilated, the eyes yellow reflective, like a cat's eye, was found only for parents. Increased intraocular pressure after cancer, eye swelling congestion, eye-shaped clumps Lanrou showed a high degree of prominence, the surface easy to bleeding into the brain through lymph node metastasis, liver, lung, life-threatening. Once diagnosed as soon as possible OK enucleation surgery, postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy to prevent recurrence.
(2) choroidal melanoma: The disease is a highly malignant tumor, mostly occurs in middle-aged, about 85% occurred in choroid, followed by ciliary body and iris. Mostly in the eye or the temporal side of the posterior pole of early no symptoms, if the impact of macular vision loss can occur, the late elevation of intraocular pressure, eye pain, headache, severe loss of vision.
Fundus examination of early limitations of blue gray flat or domed uplift, state more clearly, and sometimes can be seen within the tumor blood vessels and pigment. Common surgical removal of the eye, after re-orbital radiotherapy.
3. Orbital tumors
Sub-orbital tumor primary and secondary, primary, including lacrimal gland tumors, vascular tumors and optic nerve glioma, secondary who come from the eyelids, eye, sinus, and nasopharyngeal cancer, as well as chronic inflammation of orbit caused by orbital pseudotumor.
(1), lacrimal gland tumors: is divided into mixed, cylindrical three kinds of tumors, and adenocarcinoma, mixed tumor of lacrimal gland see more often occurs in middle-aged and virtuous among those, only 1 / 5 were malignant. Column are due to malignant tumor, and adenocarcinoma. The early days of tears and eye disease to the bottom of prominent within the upper edge of the orbit outside the palpable texture of the performance of smooth and round hard tumor was nodular mass. Malignant rapid growth, in the orbit outside the upper edge of tenderness, early treatment is completely remove the tumor. Were simply removed benign and malignant orbital were doing excavation postoperative radiotherapy line.
(2) orbital hemangioma: For benign. Mostly cavernous type, in the eye muscle cone, there is a complete capsule, slow growth, there are capillary type, no capsule, showed diffuse hyperplasia.
In addition to the disease in front of the eye gradually to highlight, no other symptoms, when the tumor grew in the muscle cone outside the eye deviation, movement disorders, vision loss or diplopia, only under outside edge of the orbital smooth and elastic non-palpable tenderness mass. Commonly used open-orbital surgery.
(3), rhabdomyosarcoma: is common in children, the rapid onset and rapid development, highly malignant, early brain and body to the easy transfer of other offices. Often make unilateral eyeball suddenly prominent, outward downward development, accompanied by pain, tears, eye movement disorders, conjunctival edema.
Fundus shows optic nerve edema, macular radial stripes, vision loss. Treatment for the early detection of early-line orbital enucleation and postoperative radiotherapy.
(4), orbital pseudotumor: Yes orbit organizations, non-specific chronic proliferative inflammation. Particularly prevalent in middle-aged men, often monocular disease, begins abruptly, but the slow development, large history of both inflammation and pain, tears, conjunctival congestion and edema, proptosis, movement disorders, visual loss and diplopia. Orbital palpable lumps, hard, ill-defined. X-ray showed dense shadows or orbital expansion, but no bone destruction. Commonly used antibiotics and hormone treatment. Can be combined with iodine, and cyclophosphamide and so on. A high degree of exophthalmos or drug efficacy poor who do tumor.
4. Eye care of cancer patients
(1) Psychological Care: cancer patients think they got "incurable disease", the lack of confidence in disease treatment, nurses should be more concerned about comfort to the patient and considerate to patients on cancer is not terrible, so that the patient confidence, compliance to treatment.
(2) radiotherapy with chemotherapy nursing: The radiotherapy and chemotherapy the patient died of consumption, should pay attention to nutrition, given high-protein, high-calorie, multi-vitamin diet, and regularly check the blood count, observation medicine and skin reactions.
(3) Surgical Care: Fan Xu surgery patients, both inside and outside eye surgery should be routine care.
(4) Hormone therapy: Hormone therapy for patients with drug side effects should be observed.
1. Eyelid tumor