Traumatic brain injury
TBI can also be caused by a forceful hit, a car accident, a fall down some stairs that can result in a fractured skull or a bullet fired from a gun into the head. Many deaths of young children you hear about on the news are TBI's, the result of the child being hit or the child be thrown into or against something.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by some sort of external force that damages the brain, for example, a slamming of the head against the ground or the floor that basically bruises the brain. Many athletes suffer concussions when this happens. You do not have to lose consciousness to have a concussion. Although some athletes may minimize concussions, this is a mistake; that there is no such thing as a "minor" concussion; and that repeated concussions can cause, not only permanent brain damage, they can even be fatal.
In an infant, brain injury can result from even less impact. Shaken Baby Syndrome is a term used to describe a range of symptoms resulting from violent shaking of an infant or small child. the degree of brain damage depends on the amount and duration of the shaking. Signs and symptoms range from irritability and lethargy to seizures, coma and even death. Infants should never be shaken; Shaken Baby Syndrome is almost always the result of child abuse.
Every year, one million people go to hospital emergency rooms with brain injuries. They are treated and sent home. Another 230,000 people hospitalized each year for brain injury end up staying for a period of time in the hospital, but survive. Fifty thousand die. Of those that survive each year, 80 thousand people have injuries that result in long-term disabilities. The Brain Injury Association estimates that 5.3 million Americans are living with disabilities caused by brain injury. That's some 2 percent of the population.