Pneumonia, a commonly-encountered disorder of pulmonary system during infancy, is mainly caused by exogenous pathogenic factors and clinically marked by fever, cough, rale and asthma. In severe cases, pale complexion, cyanotic lips and dyspnea can be seen. The disease is identical with the conception of pneumonia in modem medicine which includes bronchial pneumonia, lobar pneumonia, interstitial pneumonia, etc.. The main pathogenic factors are viruses and bacteria. The disease may occur during the whole year, but prevail in spring. Infants are susceptible to the disease. T'he younger the infants are, the more they are susceptible to the disease. Pneumonia, liable to deteriorate, occurs suddenly and severely. For the patients of young age and weak physique, the disease is subject to repeated attack and is lingering and intracta ble. If timely treatment is planned at the early stage, the prognosis is favourable.
Essentials for diagnosis
The onset is abrupt, with the symptom of fever, cough, short breath, flapping of ala nasi, rale, or mild cyanosis.
In severe cases, asthma with restlessness, dysphoria, grey complexion, worsened cyanosis or lingering high fever occur.
Infantile patients with weak congenital constitution often suffer from lingering diseases. The inability to suck milk, foam in the mouth, listlessness, etc. occur in the newborn.
Pulmonary auscultation may reveal fine and moist rales often accompanied by dry rales.
X-ray examination shows increased lung-marking out of order, decreased transmittancy. Small patchy motflings as well as uneven and large patchy shadow may be discovered.
Hemogram Total white blood cell count increases in most infantile patients, so does the classified neutrophilic granulocyte. If the disease is caused by viral infection, the white blood cell count may be less, slightly more or normal.