From birth to adulthood, infants are under constant growth and development. They are physically and functionally different from adults, for they have their own characteristics and laws. The younger they are, the more distinct these characteristics and laws will be. Therefore infants can never be regarded as the epitome of the adults. Doctors of past dynasties had made detailed discussions on the physiological characteristics. Their discussions can be summarized in the following two aspects: delicate zang-fu organs and underdeveloped physique and qi, vigorous vitality and rapid development. A full recognition of the physiological characteristics of the infants is helpful for understanding the developing rules of the infants,health care and diagnosis of diseases.
Constant failure of the lungs
The lung governs qi flows through the body. It is on the skin, hair and the striae connection externally. If the lung is delicate, is the Defensive Qi unconsolidated, making it easier by exogenous pathogenic factors that are under attack. The lung is dependent on the spleen to supply of nutrients. If the spleen and stomach are strong, the Defensive Qi will be consolidated. However, the spleen of infants tends to be weak in features so that the lungs of infants insufficient qi in the rule.
Delicacy of the Zang-Fu organs and the underdevelopment of the physical and Qi
The Zang-Fu organs related to both the Zang-Fu organs and institutions. Delicacy is weakness, liability to attack and tenderness. The body here refers to the configuration of the human body, limbs, skeleton, muscles, essence, blood and body fluids. Qi refers to physiological functional activities, such as lung qi, spleen qi and kidney qi. Delicacy of the Zang-Fu organs and under the physical and Qi means that during childhood, the morphological development and physiological functions of immature and imperfect, and that the development and functions of internal organs are not sufficient. Since the physical substances of the body are related to yin and the functional activities of the body relate to yang, physicians
In ancient times an overview of the physiological characteristics of infants as underdeveloped Yin and Yang.
The idea that the intestines of infants are tender and the baby's body is underdeveloped by tenderness of the muscles and skin, loose stretch marks, insufficient qi and blood, weak lungs and spleen, kidney qi is insufficient, is anxious and fragile bones identified and muscles. For example, from birth to toddler age, are the children of a large head, thin neck, upper part of longer and shorter lower part highlighted. Within the period of one year and a half, are the babies of prominent metopism, thin, soft skin, muscles loose interstitial streaks, yellowish and thin hair, liability in sleep sweat, tears and short voice messages in current changes in emotions. The functions of two of the five viscera and six Fu organs are underdeveloped, particularly the lungs, spleen and kidney.
Constant failure of the spleen
The spleen governs the base of the post-natal life, conversion and transport of grain nutrients and is the source for the collection of blood and Qi. As the spleen and stomach of the babies are under-developed, is inadequate and Spleen-Qi transformation and transportation functions are still weak. On the other hand, the children are growing quickly and need more nutrients than adults. Therefore, the spleen qi is often appears inadequate.
Constant failure of the kidney
The kidney is the innate foundation of life. Kidney Yin and Kidney-Yang are the sources of life with the Constitution and the growth of the affected people. Yin of the institution depends to nourish kidney-yin and moisten it while Yang of the institution relies on the kidney-yang to warm and nourish. Many aspects of the development of infants with kidney qi, as the growth, the resistance of the body as well as the normal development and function of the bone, brain, affected hair, ears and teeth. Kidney-Qi of infants is underdeveloped innate and gradually with the increase in abundance of age present. While the growth and development of the body, the babies are in constant need of adequate kidney qi to promote growth. Therefore, the kidney qi of the infants of ten appear inadequate.
In addition, the physiological functions of the child's five Zang-organs also characterized by constant abundance of the liver and the constant abundance of the heart. The former has to hyperactivity of liver yang relate, which means that during the development of infants in the liver governs the smooth flow of qi and has the function of sending and smooth flow of qi throughout the body. The latter does not mean hyperactivity of heart fire. In fact, refers to the phenomena characterized in children by rapid, strong heart-qi and full of vitality.
Full vitality and rapid development
Vitality refers to the life-force. Full vitality and rapid development mean that during the development and growth, children will quickly mature and perfect in both the morphological structure and physiological functions. The ancient physicians such combined properties of the infatile development as a pure Yang. The younger the children are, the more violent their vitality and the faster will be their growth. Such a rapid development and growth actually follows certain principles and typical changes, the symptoms of which include two aspects: the physical development and mental development. Physically, the weight of the child is one year old three times as much as is the length of her body and a half times longer, and the head is a half time larger than that if they just being born. This is the time marked by rapid growth and development. to increase as their age, slowing the rate of growth and development gradually.